This bespoke Glossary defines and explains many of the specialised terms in the testimonies and the contextual information associated with the events of November 1938.

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abbr. abbreviation, alt. alternative, lit. literal meaning, USHMM US Holocaust Memorial Museum

All non-English glossary terms are in German unless otherwise specified.


homosexual prisoner; paragraph 175 of Germany's criminal code outlawed homosexual behaviour; 175-er prisoners were denoted by a pink triangle on their clothing.

24 auf den Nackten

abbr. for 24 auf den nackten Hintern [24 on the naked backside]

 See also: 25 vorm Arsch

25 auf das Gesäß

(lit. 25 on the backside)

 See also: 25 vorm Arsch

25 vorm Arsch

(lit. 25 on the arse); punishment by whipping.


custody pending deportation


(lit. abortion paragraph); although paragraph 218 of the Penal Code for the German Reich 1872 outlawed abortion, during the Nazi period and under the Nuremberg laws the courts acquitted cases of Jewish women having abortions.

 Source: Henry P. David, 'Abortion and eugenics in Nazi Germany', Population and Development Review, 14/1, March 1988, pp 81-112


Hebrew: Agudath Israel; Agudas Yisroel; Union of Israel; political movement associated with orthodox, non-Zionist Jewry in Eastern Europe founded in 1912


(lit. operation); Nazi term for a campaign against Jews involving mass arrests, assembly, deportation, and sometimes also dispossession, torture and murder.

 See also: Aktion-Gildemeester, Aktionsjuden, Juni-Aktion, Novemberpogrom, Polenaktion, Sonderaktionsjuden


abbr. for Auswanderungshilfsaktion Gildemeester; Nazi operation to accelerate the evacuation of Jews from Vienna, run by Frank van Gheel Gildemeester (b 1881) who had previously helped the Nazis in various ways, thus gaining their confidence; the Aktion used 10% of the assets seized from wealthier Jews to finance an emigration fund for impoverished Jews, and it also assisted the wealthier Jews to expedite their own emigration; before its activities were integrated into the Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien, Gildemeester helped some 30,000 non-Aryans to emigrate.

 Source: Republik Österreich Historikerkommission, Final Report, 2003; Peter Berger, 'The Gildemeester organisation for assistance to emigrants and the expulsion of Jews from Vienna, 1938-1942', in Terry Gourvish, ed., Business and Politics in Europe, 1900–1970: Essays in Honour of Alice Teichova, Cambridge University Press, 2003, pp 215-245


(lit. operation Jews); sometimes Sonderaktionsjuden; Jews arrested in the Juni-Aktion and/or the Novemberpogrom


abbr. for Alexanderplatz

 See also: Alexanderplatz


public square in central Berlin; location of the Polizeipräsidium Berlin [Berlin police headquarters]; sometimes abbreviated to Alex


town in Upper Silesia; now Zbąszyńek, Poland

 See also: Polenaktion


Old Reich; designation of the German state prior to the Anschluß [annexation] of Austria in March 1938

am Tor stehen

alt. for stehen am Tor

 See also: stehen am Tor


local court judge

Angriff, Der

The Attack; Berlin Nazi Party newspaper (1927-1945) founded by Joseph Goebbels as a mass circulation paper for communicating propaganda and antisemitism


also written Anschluss (post 1966); Nazi German occupation and annexation of Austria on 12 March 1938, which was widely welcomed and endorsed by the non-Jewish population; there were about 192,000 Jews in Austria at the time, 4% of the total population, the great majority in Vienna, where they comprised 9% of the city's inhabitants.

 Source: USHMM

antisemitic insults

antisemitic insults cited in the Novemberpogrom testimonies:

  • Saujud [Jewish pig/swine]
  • Saukerl [pig fellow/chap; bastard]
  • Drecksau [filthy swine]
  • Derstickts, Saujuden [Choke, Jewish pigs!]
  • Schwein [pig, swine]
  • Judensau [Jewish pig/swine]
  • Judenschwein [Jewish pigs/swine]
  • Schweinejuden [Jewish pigs/swine]
  • Schweinehund [pig dog; bastard]
  • polnisches Schwein [Polish pig]
  • intellektuelles Schwein [intellectual pig/swine]
  • alter Dreckjude [old filthy Jew]
  • Juda verrecke [Perish Judah!]
  • Talmudgauner [Talmud crook]
  • Betrüger [fraudster]
  • Volksverräter [traitor against the people]
  • Zuhälter [pimp]

 See also: Saujud, Judensau

Antwerp incident

incident involving an alleged attack on two German journalists from the newspaper Der Angriff who were passengers on the steamer Cordilleras on 26 October 1938, and who took photographs in the Jewish district of Antwerp; for more information, see press reports on the alleged attack.

 Source: The Times, London, 27 October 1938, p 1


roll call of prisoners in concentration camps, who had to line up on the [parade ground] and stand to attention, two or more times per day, each Appell could last several hours and was held in all weathers.

 See also: Zählappell


parade ground where Appell [roll call] was held


work deployment law; under which male German nationals between the ages of 18 and 60 could be ordered to perform certain types of work as required by the authorities; used for transfer to concentration camps for forced labour


abbr. for Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF); German Labour Front; it replaced trade unions and obtained their assets after their forced dissolution by the Nazis and was supposed to represent employers and employees alike, with 25 million members


work group for forced labour


work shy; label for a category of concentration camp prisoners, many arrested in the Juni-Aktion called Aktion Arbeitsscheu Reich; designated by a black or brown triangle on the prisoners' uniforms.

 Source: Deutsches Historisches Museum

 See also: Asoziale


Aryan; Nazi term for non-Jewish, non-Gypsy Caucasians; the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 defined an Aryan as a person with four Aryan grandparents; only Aryans could be Reich citizens; so-called Halb-Arier [half Aryans] had only one Aryan parent; so-called Rein-Arier [pure Aryans] were Aryans who could prove that their ancestors were pure Aryans in the period before 1800.

 Source: USHMM; Yad Vashem


Aryan permit


alt. for Arisierung

 See also: Arisierung


Aryan certificate


Aryan principle


alt. for Arisierung

 See also: Arisierung


Aryanisation; the forced transfer of Jewish-owned businesses to non-Jewish "Arier" [Aryan] German ownership throughout Germany and German-occupied countries; the process included two stages: from 1933 to 1938 the Jews were gradually removed from German economic life, termed "voluntary" exclusion by the Nazis; after 1938 forced confiscation of Jewish businesses and property was legalised; eventually all Jewish money and property was confiscated by the Nazis and used to finance the deportation of the Jews.

 Source: Yad Vashem


Aryanisation duty


Aryanisation order




alt. for Arrestlokal

 See also: Arrestlokal


detention centre


alt. for Arier

 See also: Arier


asocials; label for a category of concentration camp prisoners, many arrested in the Juni-Aktion called Aktion Arbeitsscheu Reich, who were regarded as inferior by the Nazi regime; they included vagrants, beggars, alcoholics, drug addicts, prostitutes, nonconformists, pacifists and Gypsies (Sinti and Roma); designated by a black or brown triangle on the uniform.

 Source: Deutsches Historisches Museum; Holocaust Memorial Day Trust

 See also: Arbeitsscheu

Auernheimer, Raoul

(1876-1948); lawyer, journalist and writer in Vienna; President and Vice-President of PEN (an international association of writers) in Vienna; arrested in March 1938 and imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp until late 1938; emigrated to New York with his family.

 See also: B.142 (document resource)

auf der Flucht erschossen

shot whilst escaping; Nazi term for concentration camp prisoners shot dead by the SS guards


alt. forAufenthaltserlaubnis

 See also: Aufenthaltserlaubnis


residence permit


alt. for Aufenthaltserlaubnis

 See also: Aufenthaltserlaubnis


exclusion order


overseer or supervisor of prisoners


export tax permit


disclosure of information


Germans living abroad


redemption authority; decree controlling the financial arrangements imposed on Jews who wanted to retain precious metal or jewellery items.

 Source: Wiener Library, Novemberpogrom eyewitness account B.330

 See also: B.330 (document resource)


exit application


exit permit


exit papers


emigration advice centre


emigration passport


emigration visa


deportation order


alt. for Abschiebungshaft

 See also: Abschiebungshaft

B. V.

alt. for Berufsverbrecher

 See also: Berufsverbrecher


alt. for Hitler-Jugend

 See also: Hitler-Jugend

Bänke, gelbe

yellow benches; public benches marked with yellow paint; Jews were not allowed to use other benches


barrack elder

Baranowski, Hermann

(1884-1940); Lagerkommandant of Sachsenhausen concentration camp (1938-9)


tree-hanging punishment, in which the prisoner's hands were chained to a tree behind him and supported his whole weight

Beer Hall Putsch

alt. forBürgerbräukeller

 See also: Bürgerbräukeller


town in Upper Silesia; now Zbąszyń, Poland.

 See also: Polenaktion


abbr. BV; career or professional criminal who made crime their business and who lived in part or whole from the gains of their crimes; sentenced at least three times for a minimum of three months; category of concentration camp prisoner, designated by a green triangle on their clothing; officially known in full as Befristete Vorbeugungshaft [limited term preventive custody] or Beschränkte Verhaftung [limited or short term imprisonment].

 Source: USHMM; Robert Gellately, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany, Oxford University Press, 2001, p 296

 See also: Gewohnheitsverbrecher




tax assessment

Beth Neorim

Hebrew: Beit Hanarim; youth hostel


house of prayer; often interchangeable with "synagogue"; premises of a private person left to a Jewish community in order to perform the community service; only furnished in a makeshift manner for worship; a Jewish school can also be used.

 Source: Manfred Jehle ed., Die Juden und die jüdischen Gemeinden Preussens in amtlichen Enquêten des Vormärz Einzelveröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission zu Berlin, Band 82/1-4, Munich, K.G. Saur Verlag GmbH & Co., 1998




district; term used particularly in Vienna


district police station


bible students or Jehovah's Witnesses; also Ernste Bibelforscher [earnest bible students]; abbr. of Internationale Bibelforscher-Vereinigung (IBV) [International Bible Students Association (IBSA)]; comparatively small Christian denomination; first religious denomination in the Third Reich to be banned; Nazi legal authorities persecuted them as conscientious objectors on the charge of demoralisation of the armed forces; no other religious denomination opposed the coercion of the National Socialists with comparable determination; as prisoners denoted by purple triangle on their clothing.

 Source: Detlef Garbe, Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah's Witnesses in the Third Reich trans. Dagmar G. Grimm, University of Wisconsin Press, 2008, pp 3, 4


group of barracks in a concentration camp


block elder in a concentration camp; senior prisoner with disciplinary powers, appointed by the SS


alt. forSS-Blockführer

 See also: SS-Blockführer


block registrar in a concentration camp


block warden

Blut und Ehre

(lit. blood and honour); motto etched on the blade of Hitler Youth daggers


(lit. blood order); prestigious medal awarded by the Nazis


whipping block

Braune Schwestern

brown sisters; nurses, members of the NSV-Schwesternschaft (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt) [National Socialist People's Welfare Nurses]


Nazi concentration camp on the Ettersberg, ten kilometres north west of Weimar, Germany, opened in July 1937; most of the early inmates were political prisoners; however, in the aftermath of the Novemberpogrom in November 1938, German SS and police sent almost 10,000 Jews to Buchenwald; 600 prisoners died there between November 1938 and February 1939.

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library

Bund Deutscher Mädel

alt. for Hitler-Jugend

 See also: Hitler-Jugend

Bürckel, Josef

Reichskommissar for the unification and integration of Austria with the German Reich, 1938-40.


Bürgerbräu beer hall in Munich, from where Hitler led a failed attempt to seize power in Munich on 8 November 1923; also called the Beer Hall Putsch and Ereignis am Biertisch [event at the beer table]; subsequently the location of annual Nazi Party commemoration of that event.

Buß- und Bettag

Day of Prayer and Repentance; regional Protestant Christian holiday on the Wednesday eleven days before the First Sunday of Advent


alt. for Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens

 See also: Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens

C.V. Zeitung

weekly newspaper of Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens from 1922 to 1938.


alt. for Kapo

 See also: Kapo

Centralverein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens

abbr. CV; Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith; founded in 1893 as a reaction to growing antisemitism, it monitored and documented the prevalence of anti-Jewish actions throughout Germany, as well as the Jewish communities' responses to them.


Hebrew: pioneer; Zionist youth organisation with offices in Europe, providing preparation for settlement in Palestine.

Chevra kadisha

Hebrew: preparations for Jewish burial.


Dutch: committee; refers to several relief organisations active in the Netherlands: Comité voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen [Committee for Special Jewish Affairs]; Comité voor Joodse Vluchtelingen [Committee for Jewish Refugees]; Nederlands Kinder Comité [Dutch Children's Committee]


concentration camp near the town of Dachau, 30 kilometres north west of Munich; the first Nazi concentration camp to be opened in Germany, in March 1933, in the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory; its layout and building plans were the model for all other Nazi concentration camps; it was a training centre for SS concentration camp guards, and the camp's organisation and routine became the model for all Nazi concentration camps; about 10,000 Jewish men arrested in the Novemberpogrom were held at Dachau.

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library

Daluege, Kurt

(1897-1946); Nazi official; after serving as a German army officer in WWI and the Rossbach Freikorps, in 1926 he joined the SA then transferred to the SS in 1928; he became a member of the Reichstag [German parliament] in January 1933 and chief of the Prussian police department; in 1934 he ran the regular uniformed police and in 1942 became acting governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia; he was executed in 1946 for crimes such as the Lidice massacre.

 Source: Yad Vashem

Deutsche Arbeitsfront

alt. for Arbeitsfront

 See also: Arbeitsfront


foreign currency clearance


foreign currency official


foreign currency office

Dolfuss, Engelbert

(1892-1934); Chancellor of Austria (1932-34); Catholic, Austrian nationalist dictator who sought to maintain independence from Germany and the rising Nazi Party; assassinated in an attempted putsch by Austrian Nazis.

 Source: A. D. Harvey, 'Austria's diminutive dictator', History Today, 7/2009, pp 41-47


concentration camp prisoners' uniforms made from Drillich [cotton drill].

 See also: Zwilchanzug


transit camp


travel permit


honourable custody

Eidesstattliche Vermögenserklärung

declaration of wealth issued in lieu of an oath




entry certificate


entry permit


entry permit


entry opportunity


stew Sunday; a day when all citizens eat only simple, cheap foodstuffs


street in Vienna IX., renamed Rossauer Lände in 1919; location of police prison within the Imperial Royal police headquarters, built in 1905 to replace police prisons at the Theobaldkloster and on Sterngasse; despite the street name change it continued to be referred to as Elisabethpromenade or Liesl; the prison contained c. 148 cells for 300 prisoners and had plumbed toilets in every cell.

 Source: Wikipedia;


expropriation procedure


petition for release


release certificate

Ereignis am Biertisch

(lit. event at the beer table).

 See also: Bürgerbräukeller

Ernste Bibelforscher

(lit. earnest bible students).

 See also: Bibelforscher

Evian Conference

32 countries were invited by US President FD Roosevelt to attend a conference at the Hotel Royal in Evian, France, on 23 March 1938 to tackle the problem of accommodating refugees from the German Reich; Germany and Portugal were not invited, the USSR and Czechoslovakia did not send representatives, Italy refused the invitation and Hungary, Romania, Poland and South Africa sent observers; all except the Dominican Republic refused to increase their respective immigration quotas.

 Source: Mémorial de la Shoah


punitive drill; military-style physical exercises in concentration camps


(lit. festival hall); large hall used for trade fairs, amongst other things, e.g. in Frankfurt am Main


tax office


flight or escape tax; tax on departure.

 See also: Golddiskontbank, Sperrmark


alt. for Nationalsozialistische Frauenschaft

 See also: Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei


clearance certificate


foreigners' registration office


aliens' branch of the police


socage; forced labour, slave labour.

 See also: Zwangsarbeit


concentration camp in Hamburg


leader; designation for Adolf Hitler


alt. for SS-Führer

 See also: SS-Führer

Fünfundzwanzig vorm Arsch

alt. for 25 vorm Arsch

 See also: 25 vorm Arsch


Ministry of Welfare


Nazi party regional leader



Geheime Staatspolizei

alt. for Gestapo

 See also: Gestapo


hostage theory; Hitler was convinced of a Jewish world conspiracy and regarded the Jews of Europe as political hostages against the United States; an earlier version referring to WWI foresaw an attack against France as a means of influencing British policy and of compensating for the confiscation of German colonies and shipping by Britain in the event of an Anglo-German war.

 Source: Boris Barth, Genozid: Völkermord im 20. Jahrhundert: Geschichte, Theorien, Kontroversen, CH Beck, 2006, p 99; Mark Hewitson, Germany and the Causes of the First World War, 2004, Bloomsbury, p 176


alt. for Bezirk

 See also: Bezirk


(Jewish) community house


(Jewish) community chairman and/or council member(s)




abbr. for Geheime Staatspolizei [Secret State Police]; formed in 1933 by Hermann Göring.

 See also: Sicherheitspolizei, Kriminalpolizei


petition; in the Novemberpogrom context for release from arrest or imprisonment


habitual criminal or repeat offender; in Nazi terms not a professional criminal but regarded as being driven by a similar predisposition; sentenced at least three times for a minimum of three months.

 Source: Robert Gellately, Backing Hitler: Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany, Oxford University Press, 2001, p 296

 See also: Berufsverbrecher


abbr. for gezeichnet; signed

Gildemeester, Frank van Gheel

alt. for Aktion-Gildemeester

 See also: Aktion-Gildemeester

Goebbels, Josef

(1897-1945); Nazi Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda


Gold Discount Bank, established in 1924, became a subsidiary of the Deutsche Reichsbank [German central bank]; the transfer of Jewish emigrants' assets abroad was made more difficult by the large deduction that had to be paid in foreign currency to the Golddiskontbank, which could amount to 90% of the capital.

 Source: Philipp Gassert and Alan E. Steinweis, eds, Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975, Berghahn, 2006, p 92 n29

 See also: Fluchtsteuer, Sperrmark

Göring, Hermann

(1893-1946); Nazi politician and military leader; founded the Gestapo in 1933; commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe (1935-1945)

Grensbewaking en Rijksvreemdelingendienst

Dutch: Border Control and State Aliens Office


border permit


(lit. border station); border railway station

Grüne Heinrich, Der

Green Henry; popular name for a type of low, narrow police vehicle used in Vienna

Grynszpan, Herschel

(1921-?1960); Polish Jew living in Paris, on 7 November 1938 protested against the recent banishment of Polish Jews living in Germany (including his parents) to beyond the Polish border by mortally injuring Ernst vom Rath, a third secretary at the German legation; the Nazis took this as a pretext for the Novemberpogrom.

 Source: Mémorial de la Shoah

 See also: Polenaktion


Haavara [transfer] marks: payments under the Haavara Agreement, negotiated by the Jewish Agency in 1933 with the Haavara Co. in Palestine and the Nazi authorities to allow Jewish emigrants to deposit money with the company; it enabled 50,000 German Jews to emigrate to Palestine and export some of their assets there.

 Source: Encyclopedia Judaica

 See also: Reichsmark, Sperrmark, Papiermark


Hebrew: training, preparation; German: Hachschara; agricultural training facilities for young Jews preparing to emigrate to Palestine (1933-39).

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library



 See also: Arier


commercial court lawyer


alt. for Chaluz

 See also: Chaluz


Jewish emigrants' assistance organisation, with headquarters in Paris and offices all over Europe, Central and South America and South East Asia; HICEM is an acronym of HIAS (Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society), ICA (Jewish Colonisation Association) and Emigdirect, three Jewish migration associations which merged in 1927.

 Source: Yad Vashem

Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden

Aid Association of German Jews, 1901-1939; provided financial and practical assistance to Jews seeking to emigrate; Palästina-Amt of the Jewish Agency assisted emigrants to Palestine.

 Source: Yad Vashem

 See also: Palästina-Amt

Himmler, Heinrich

(1900-1945); Reichsführer-SS, head of the Gestapo and the Waffen-SS, Nazi Minister of the Interior (1943-45), responsible for overseeing the Nazis' "Final Solution to the Jewish Question"

Hirschfeld, Oskar

(b ?1900); former secretary-general of the Union of Austrian Jews and final editor-in-chief of the Vienna Jewish weekly Die Wahrheit until it was closed down and he was arrested and imprisoned in Vienna in March 1938; released on condition that he emigrated; went to the USA via England; contributed nine reports to the JCIO (102 136 142 149 153 173 179 190 197).

 Source: Jewish Telegraphic Agency (4 Jan 1940)

 See also: B.142 (document resource)

historische Länder

historic states: Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia


abbr. HJ; Hitler Youth; paramilitary youth organisation of the Nazi Party founded in 1926 for boys, to indoctrinate young people in Nazi ideology; a parallel organisation for girls was set up in 1928, later called Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM); 90% of German youths were members of HJ and BDM by 1939.

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library


person guilty of high treason

Horst Wessel song

marching song of the SA and later the official song of the Nazi Party and unofficial national anthem of Germany, with words by Horst Wessel (1907-1930), an SA Storm trooper whose death Goebbels claimed was a Communist plot; also known as Die Fahne hoch [the flag held high] from its first line.

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library


illegals; category of prisoners


Ministry of the Interior


so-called protective detention


Jewish policy holders were unable to obtain compensation from insurance companies for destroyed shop window displays, windows and the contents of destroyed synagogues and houses of prayer; the insurance companies had to pay the German Reich, not the policy holders, who were obliged to continue to pay premiums to the insurance companies.

 Source: Republik Österreich Historikerkommission, Final Report, 2003


Israelite; of Israel; Jewish; in the biblical sense a descendant of the Jewish patriarch Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel after an all-night fight at Penuel near the stream of Jabbok (Genesis 32:28); a native or inhabitant of the ancient, biblical Northern Kingdom of Israel.

 Source: Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 'Israelite'

 See also: Israelitische Gemeinde, Zwangsnamen

Israelitische Gemeinde

Jewish community; used mainly in Austria, also in Germany and Switzerland; the official name for Jewish communities in Austria is Israelitische Kultusgemeinde (IKG); originates in a speech by Emperor Franz Joseph I on 3 April 1849 referring to the "Israelitische Gemeinde von Wien" [Jewish community of Vienna].

 Source: Schencker Documents Online; accessed 16 June 2014


Yiddish: anniversary of a death; mainly observed for deceased parents or outstanding individuals


alt. for Jewish Central Information Office

 See also: Jewish Central Information Office

Jehovah's Witnesses

alt. for Bibelforscher

 See also: Bibelforscher

Jewish Central Information Office

abbr. JCIO; Jewish Central Information Office; organisation set up to gather intelligence about the Nazi regime and antisemitism and disseminate it internationally; led by Dr Alfred Wiener in Amsterdam (1933-39), following his similar work at Büro Wilhelmstrasse for the Central-Verein deutscher Staatsbürger jüdischen Glaubens in Berlin (1929-1933); it had 17 staff , 8,000 books and pamphlets and many thousands of press cuttings by the time it was moved to London in 1939; it is now known as the Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide; for biographies see document: "Jewish Central Information Office: people"

 See also: The Wiener Library and JCIO (document resource)

Juda verrecke!

alt. for antisemitic insults

 See also: antisemitic insults

Juden unerwünscht

Jews not wanted; sign displayed in restaurants, etc.


laws relating to the Jews


servant of the Jews; Gentile person assisting Jews with domestic work etc.; also Jewish lackey, used in antisemitic parlance to label non-Jews servile to the Jews, for example term used to insult people who approached Jewish shops and offices of Jewish lawyers and doctors as well as workshops of Jewish artisans, shoemakers and tailors, despite the boycott of April 1, 1933.

 Source: Theodore Herzl, The Jews' State, transl. Henk Overberg, Rowman & Littlefield, 1997, p 225; Thomas Dunlap, ed. and transl., Before the Holocaust: Three German-Jewish Lives, 1870-1939, Xlibris, 2011, p 389


tax of RM 1.2 billion imposed on the Jews in 1938-9 for the cost of the Novemberpogrom damage.

 See also: Judenvermögensabgabe


also Saujud; Jew pig/swine; a popular image in German religious texts and sculptures since the middle ages, seen in prints and sculptures and carvings on cathedrals, churches and public buildings (e.g. Cologne, Leipzig, Regensburg, Wittenberg); a few examples also in Austria, France, Belgium and Switzerland; it depicts Jews, sometimes rabbis, in obscene activities with a pig, sometimes in consort with the Devil, sometimes copulating with the pig or with pig faces, or eating pig excrement or suckling from the sow; it is often combined with depictions of the blood libel and is based on the Jewish ritual prohibition against eating or touching pigs; the image was revived in the Nazi period, and the word was turned into an insult; see also antisemitic insults.

 Source: Zionism & Israel Center


Jewish assets/property tax; Sühneleistung [punitive tax] introduced by Hermann Göring on registered Jewish assets for "the hostile attitude of the Jews towards the German people" following the assassination of Ernst vom Rath and the Novemberpogrom; it imposed a Strafmilliarde [punishment billion] compensation payment of one billion RM; all German Jews with property in excess of RM. 5,000 including those living abroad had to pay 25% of their remaining wealth in five instalments up to the end of 1939.

 Source: USHMM

 See also: Judenkontribution, Sühneleistung


registration of Jews' assets; Jews seeking to emigrate had to submit a statement of their assets, which were then confiscated or heavily taxed

Jüdische Rundschau

Jewish Review; twice weekly paper published by the Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland [Zionist Federation for Germany] between 1896 and 1938

Jüdischer Frauenbund

Jewish Women's League; founded in 1904 by Bertha Pappenheim (see Pappenheim, Bertha); closed down in 1938; revived in the 1950s

Jüdischer Krankenpfleger

alt. for Krankenbehandler

 See also: Krankenbehandler

Jüdischer Kulturbund

Jewish Cultural Federation; supported and promoted segregated Jewish art, music, writing and publishing in Germany for Jewish-only audiences between 1935 and 1941 as prescribed by the Nazi regime; it replaced the Kulturbund Deutscher Juden [Cultural Federation of German Jews] (1933-1935).

 See also: Kulturbund

Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt

(1938-1943); The Jewish News Bulletin; after the Novemberpogrom the many Jewish newspapers were shut down and the Nazis ordered the creation of this one new Jewish newspaper; it was kept under close watch by the Nazi authorities; it published discussions and news items about the Jewish community that were found "acceptable" by the Nazi authorities; many of the articles and advertisements concerned Jewish emigration from Germany.

 Source: Leo Baeck Institute

Jüdisches Sozialamt

Jewish social services office; a Jewish emigrant aid society in Prague in 1939.

 Source: Jean-Michel Palmier, Weimar in Exile: the Anti-Fascist Emigration in Europe and America, transl. David Fernbach, London, Verso, 2006, p 275


June operation; mass arrests in Germany between 13 and 18 June 1938 of more than 10,000 men categorised by the Nazi regime as so-called Asoziale [asocial] and Arbeitsscheue [work shy], mostly unemployed or with a criminal record; over half were sent to Sachsenhausen; the operation was called Arbeitsscheu Reich; about 20% of the men were Jews.

 Source: Deutsches Historisches Museum; Dieter Pohl, 'The Holocaust and the concentration camps', Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories, Jane Caplan and Nikolaus Wachsmann, eds, Routledge, 2009, p 150


state prosecutor


also Capo; concentration camp prisoners given a supervisory role over other prisoners by the SS; carried out the orders of the SS; after the war some Kapos were prosecuted as war criminals Source: Jewish Virtual Library

 See also: Capo


Karajangasse 14, Vienna XX.; police station in the former Brigittenauer Gymnasium and Volkschule, used to detain Jews arrested in November 1938; it was also used as a Durchgangslager [transit camp] in 1939.

 Source:; 'Ein fremdes, fernes, unbekanntes Land', testimony of Ernst Otto Allerhand (born 1923, Vienna), in Erinnerungen: Lebensgeschichten von Opfern des Nationalsozialismus, Vienna, National Fund of the Republic of Austria for the Victims of National Socialism, 2012, p 75


identity card


Kenyongasse 4-8, Vienna VII.; Notgefängnis [temporary prison] in a former convent school; the school was dissolved in 1938 and the building used as a Fachschule [technical college], possibly for teacher training, and for c. 300 refugees from the Sudetenland and 2,062 Jewish prisoners interned there on 12 November 1938; the custody regime was particularly brutal; prisoners were killed and committed suicide there.



identity papers for children


alt. for Nederlands Kinder Comité and Comité

 See also: Nederlands Kinder Comité, Comité


cigarette ends


knee-bends or squats; a punishment exercise

kochende Volksseele

seething populace.

 See also: Volkswut

Kom. Rat.

alt. for Kommerzialrat

 See also: Kommerzialrat




abbr. Kom. Rat; commercial councillor; honorific title given to distinguished businessmen in Austria

Kommissar vom Dienst

duty police inspector


police station


army bread; a coarse rye bread


alt. for Judenkontribution

 See also: Judenkontribution


abbr. KZ; concentration camp; type of prison used to detain and confine large numbers of people without judicial process, usually under harsh conditions, especially political prisoners or members of persecuted minorities, in a relatively small area with inadequate facilities, sometimes to provide forced labour or to await mass execution; the Nazi regime established about 15,000 concentration, labour and death camps between 1933 and 1945 in Germany and elsewhere; men arrested in the Novemberpogrom were held in three concentration camps: Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen.

 Source: Oxford English Dictionary; USHMM; Jewish Virtual Library


Jewish doctors licensed by the Nazi authorities to treat Jewish patients


alt. for Revier

 See also: Revier


alt. for Revier

 See also: Revier


alt. for Sanitäter

 See also: Sanitäter


Nazi municipal leader


Nazi municipal authorities


police detective


criminal police; plain-clothes police detectives; in 1936 became part of the Sicherheitspolizei together with the Gestapo.

 Source: Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 'Gestapo'

 See also: Sicherheitspolizei, Reichskriminalamt


detective superintendant or captain


alt. for Reichskristallnacht; night of broken glass.

 See also: Reichskristallnacht, Novemberpogrom


Kulturbund Deutscher Juden; Cultural Federation of German Jews (1933-1935); replaced by the Jüdischer Kulturbund in Deutschland [Jewish Cultural Federation in Germany].

 See also: Jüdischer Kulturbund


alt. for Israelitische Kultusgemeinde

 See also: Israelitische Gemeinde


Jewish Association of Cultural Affairs


Jewish community council chairman and/or member(s)


notice to quit


alt. for Synagogendiener

 See also: Synagogendiener


alt. for Konzentrationslager

 See also: Konzentrationslager;

L'Univers Israélite

Jewish Universe; weekly journal published in Paris 1844-?1939


camp elder


camp leader


camp commandant


regional court


state governor


abbr. LVO; regional authority regulation


landing money; charge paid by relatives of Jewish refugees living outside of Germany, upon the refugee's arrival in the country to which they have emigrated


usually: military hospital


legation secretary


identity card


Jewish house of study


name of the II. Bezirk [second district] in central Vienna, on the west bank of the River Danube, first granted to the Jews in 1624; by 1923 Jews comprised almost 40% of its inhabitants.

 Source: Wikipedia


alt. for Landesverwaltungsverordnung

 See also: Landesverwaltungsverordnung


Hitler's seizure of full power following his appointment by the President, Paul von Hindenburg, as Reichskanzler [Reich Chancellor] on 30 January 1933



 See also: Wachmannschaft


Dutch and Belgian police performing military and civilian duties

Mein Kampf

My Struggle; autobiographical book by Adolf Hitler, published in 1925, containing his ideas, beliefs and plans for the future of Germany.

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library


senior government official


Hebrew: quorum; ten adult Jewish males must be present for public worship


Hebrew: commandment; good deed

Mogen Dovid

also Magen David; Yiddish: Mogein Dovids; (lit. Shield of David); Star of David; two overlaid equilateral triangles form a six-pointed star; historically a common symbol in the Middle East and North Africa, which was never an exclusively Jewish symbol; it was adopted as the emblem of the Zionist movement in 1897 and continued to be controversial for many years afterward; the yellow badge that Jews were forced to wear in Nazi-occupied Europe invested the Star of David with a symbolism indicating martyrdom and heroism; it was used in badges on prisoners' uniforms in Nazi concentration camps.

 Source: Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 'Star of David'; Jewish Virtual Library

Morgan, Paul

(1886-1938); prominent and successful Austrian cabaret director and film actor; arrested in March 1938 for his anti-Nazi cabarets; sent to Dachau then Buchenwald, where he died in December 1938.

 Source: ORT, Music and the Holocaust (online)

Munich Agreement [Pact]

agreement signed by Hitler, Chamberlain, Mussolini and Daladier on 30 September 1938 in Munich for Czechoslovakia to cede the Sudetenland to Germany in return for Hitler pledging peace; see also Sudetenland

N. N.

abbr. for Latin: nomen nominandum [name to be confirmed]

Nathan Israel

Kaufhaus Nathan Israel; Nathan Israel department store; founded in 1813, became one of the largest retail establishments in Europe by 1930

Nationalsozialistische Frauenschaft

National Socialist Women's League; founded in October 1931 as an umbrella body for several national and National Socialist women associations; it was declared the only official Nazi Party organisation for women and had a membership of 2.3 million, led by Gertrud Scholtz-Klink; members had to attend at least one evening meeting per month; the focus was the preparation of women for their duties as house keepers and mothers.

 Source: Deutsches Historisches Museum

Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps

abbr. NSKK; National Socialist Motor Corps; paramilitary organisation within the Nazi Party (1931-1945)

Nazi Party

alt. for Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

 See also: Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

abbr. NSDAP [National Socialist German Workers' Party; Nazi Party]; state party of the German National Socialist dictatorship; founded in 1919 as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP) [German Workers Party]; Hitler joined the DAP in 1919, became its head of propaganda in 1920 and helped to draw up its antisemitic, anti-Versailles Treaty manifesto; the Party was renamed NSDAP in 1920 and Hitler became its chairman and Führer in 1921

Nederlands Kinder Comité

Dutch Children's Committee

 See also: Comité

Nederlandsche Nationaal Socialist, De

The Dutch National Socialist; official newspaper of the Nationaal-Socialistische Arbeiderspartij [Dutch Nazi party]


town in Upper Silesia; now Zbąszyńek, Poland.

 See also: Polenaktion

Neue Freie Presse

New Free Press; daily newspaper published in Vienna from 1844 until the Anschluß [annexation of Austria] in March 1938

Neue Zürcher Zeitung

abbr. NZZ; New Zurich Newspaper; internationally well-regarded daily German-language paper published since 1780; daily since 1869; banned in Nazi Germany from 1934

Neues Wiener Tagblatt

New Vienna Daily Paper; published 1867-1945; from 1938 a vehicle for Nazi propaganda


emergency detention (unit); in Vienna Karajangasse and Kenyongasse were two of the Notarreste; two others were Sofiensäle, on Marxergasse, Vienna III., a concert hall that continued in use after November 1938 as a Sammelstelle [collecting point] for people being deported; at Pramergasse, Vienna IX. the police Reitschule [rider training school] was used to detain Jews,

 Source:; Christa Mehany-Mitterrutzner, 'Vor 75 Jahren: Novemberpogrom 1938', Österreich Journal, 125 (12.11.2013), pp. 32, 34

 See also: Karajangasse, Kenyongasse


emergency prison

Notgemeinschaft deutscher Wissenschaftler im Ausland

Emergency Association of German Scientists Abroad; self-help organisation founded in 1933 by Philipp Schwartz (who had himself fled to Switzerland) for German scholars abroad, which acted as an intermediary for jobseekers without regard to race or creed.

 Source: Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel


November operation.

 See also: Novemberpogrom


November Jews; Jews arrested during the Novemberpogrom


"November pogrom; also Novemberaktion [November operation], Kristallnacht [Night of Broken Glass]; Reichskristallnacht [Reich Night of Broken Glass];

Terminology: each of these terms is problematic because (a) some dispute that this was a 'pogrom' which they regard as 'exterminatory violence against a social group',rather than 'state-directed terror against the Jews'; (b) some wish to avoid Nazi vocabulary, for example the word 'Aktion'; (c) some wish to avoid the term 'Kristallnacht' because they regard it as misrepresenting what happened by implying only windows were broken, thus diminishing the extent and severity of the murders and other harms caused to the Jews; see also Volkswut; the OED offers two definitions for 'pogrom': (i) In Russia, Poland, and some other East European countries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: an organized massacre aimed at the destruction or annihilation of a body or class of people, esp. one conducted against Jewish people; (ii) an organized, officially tolerated, attack on any community or group.

The events: on the night of 9-10 November 1938 in hundreds of towns and villages in Germany and Austria, thousands of Jews were simultaneously terrorised, persecuted and victimised; antisemitic persecution and mistreatment had already occurred before those dates through the increasing restrictions and disenfranchisement of Jews in Germany and Austria, a wave of arrests in June 1938, the expulsion of Polish-born Jews from Germany to the border with Poland in October 1938; that last event prompted Herschel Grynszpan's mortal attack on German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris on 7 November 1938, which was the pretext for the November incidents, in which a centrally orchestrated attack was unleashed upon the Jews: over 1,200 synagogues were desecrated, looted and burned, thousands of Jewish shops, businesses and homes were damaged and looted,countless individuals were attacked, abused and beaten; over 90 people were killed; over 25,000 men were arrested, deported and detained in the concentration camps at Buchenwald, Dachau and Sachsenhausen for months, where they were brutally tortured and mistreated; many more died there."

 See also: Novemberaktion, Reichskristallnacht


alt. for Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

 See also: Nazionalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei


alt. for Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps

 See also: Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps

Nuremberg Laws

the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour were adopted on 15 September 1935, depriving Jews of citizenship and barring them from flying the German flag; Jewish families employing a Christian household servant under the age of 45 could be convicted of racial contamination, as could any couple circumventing the law by marrying abroad; mixed marriages and all sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews, which were said to contaminate the race, were forbidden; related regulations defined a Jew as someone with three or four Jewish grandparents, and removed Jews from all spheres of German political, social, and economic life.

 Source: Mémorial de la Shoah; Jewish Virtual Library

Oberbaurat Ing.

senior architect and engineer


alt. for SS-Oberführer

 See also: SS-Führer


alt. for SS-Obergruppenführer

 See also: SS-Oberführer


senior lawyer at the regional high court and court of appeal


Hebrew: Shammash servant; German/Yiddish: senior synagogue attendant


alt. for SS-Oberscharführer

 See also: SS-Oberscharführer


alt. for SS-Obersturmbannführer

 See also: SS-Obersturmbannführer


option to move from Czechoslovakia to Germany before the end of March 1939; see Article 7 of Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938


now Oranienburg bei Berlin, about 40 kilometres north of Berlin; German concentration camp set up in an abandoned brewery in central Oranienburg during 1933 and closed in 1934; later there was a satellite camp of the main concentration camp at Sachsenhausen at the Heinkel-Werke in Oranienburg from 1943 to 1945 (prisoners had been working there since 1939), also referred to as Oranienburg.

 See also: Sachsenhausen


(lit. castle of the [medieval, knightly] order); elite Nazi training establishment for military leaders, open only to the landed nobility


alt. for SS-Ortsgruppenleiter

 See also: SS-Ortsgruppenleiter


Eastern Marches; originally eastern territories of the German Empire ceded to Poland in 1919; applied to Austria between 1938 and 1942, after which the designation was forbidden


packing permit


Palestine office; offices set up in most European capitals and exit ports by the World Zionist Organisation from 1918, later under the aegis of the Jewish Agency, to handle the organisation, regulation, and implementation of Jewish immigration to Palestine.

 See also: Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden


Palestine Authority


organisation active across Europe training young people for relocation to Palestine


(lit. paper mark); German currency (1914-1923) as coins and banknotes.

 See also: Haavaramark, Reichsmark, Sperrmark

Pappenheim, Bertha

(1859-1936); founder of Jewish girls' home in Isenburg [now Neu-Isenburg] near Frankfurt am Main; founder of the Jüdischer Frauenbund [League of Jewish Women]; received psychological treatment from Josef Breuer written up as Anna O. in Breuer and Sigmund Freud's Studies in Hysteria (1895)


abbr. PG; party member


passage; release form


abbr. for Pfennig; penny; 1/100 of the RM


abbr. for Parteigenosse


operation in Poland; in mid-October 1938 a Polish decree was issued cancelling passports of Poles living abroad who did not obtain a special authorisation to re-enter Poland by the end of the month; over 30,000 Jews living in Germany and 20,000 in Austria were born in Poland and this decree seized their Polish nationality and made them stateless on 1 November 1938; the Nazi government in Germany did not wish to absorb this population, and on 27-28 October 1938 the police and the SS arrested and transported about 17,000 to Neu-Bentschen, near the Polish border town of Zbąszyń, 90 kilometres west of Poznan and 110 kilometres east of Frankfurt an der Oder; the Polish border police sent them back; they were stuck in no man's land close to Zbąszyń; a few with relatives in Poland were admitted; in January 1939 following negotiations between Germany and Poland, Jews with family members living in Poland were allowed to join them; the others were allowed to return to Germany in small groups to sell their businesses and emigrate; approximately 16,000 Polish Jews were expelled from Germany in this way.

 Source: Mémorial de la Shoah; Bundesarchiv: Memorial Book (with further details at

 See also: Grynszpan, Herschel

Politischer Häftling

political prisoner; mainly communists, also social democrats, liberals, conservatives and some former NSDAP; denoted by a red triangle on their clothing, which until 1939 was seen as a badge of honour for enemies of the fascist regime.

 Source: Gertrude Schneider, Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938-1945, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995, p 19


police detention


police prison; police cells


police captain


Chief of Police


police headquarters


police station


police order


police car/vehicle


plank bed; sometimes bunk bed

Privataktion des Führers

personal operation by the Führer [leader]


authorised signatory, proxy; company secretary

Prügelstrafe auf dem Bock

flogging on the whipping block


Latin: fifth; second year of schooling in German grammar school


racial disgrace, defilement; Nazi term for sexual relations between Aryans and non-Aryans, punishable by law; initially it referred to relations between Germans and Jews, later to relations between Germans and all foreigners brought into the Third Reich as slave workers.

 Source: Gregory Wegner, Anti-Semitism and Schooling under the Third Reich, Routledge, 2002, p 64


town hall

Referent Reg. Rat

Referent Regierungsrat; consultant (senior) civil servant

Reg. Rat.

alt. for Regierungsrat

 See also: Reg. Rat.


building officer employed by the government


civil servant


scrubbing or cleaning gang; arrestees or prisoners forced to wash pavements and walls


German central bank 1876-1945


leader of the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold [Reich banner black-red-gold], a political organisation and paramilitary force associated with the German Social Democratic Party

Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten

Reich Association of Jewish Front-line Soldiers


Germans of the Reich; Nazi term for ethnic German citizens living in the German state following unification in 1871, as contrasted with Volksdeutsche, ethnic Germans born outside of Germany


alt. for Fluchtsteuer

 See also: Fluchtsteuer


highest rank within the SS

 See also: Himmler, Heinrich


SS High Command


Reich Criminal Investigation Office; central office of the Kriminalpolizei; a department within the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RHSA) [Reich Security Main Office]


alt. for Novemberpogrom

 See also: Novemberpogrom


abbr. RM; German currency (1924-1948)

 See also: Reichsmark, Sperrmark, Haavaramark


Reich Food Corporation; statutory corporation of farmers and other food producers in Nazi Germany; set up in 1933 to control production, distribution and prices of agricultural products.

 Source: Deutsches Historisches Museum


Reich postal service

Reichsstelle für Wanderungswesen

Reich Office for Emigration Affairs


Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland [Reich Deputation of Jews in Germany] (1933-35); chairman Leo Baeck, director Otto Hirsch; renamed Reichsverband der Juden in Deutschland [Reich Federation of Jews in Germany] (1935-39) and Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland [Reich Association of Jews in Germany] (1939-43); before the Novemberpogrom it was a federation of Jewish organisations and regional and local Jewish communities that aimed to provide a unified voice for German Jewry in dealing with the Nazi authorities; it was then taken into the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RHSA) [Reich Security Main Office] and supervised the communication to and implementation by the Jewish community of Nazi laws and regulations.

 Source: Wikipedia; Archiveshub


state counsel for commerce; the Reichswirtschaftsgericht [Imperial Commercial Court] was established in 1915 to deal with disputes related to the expropriation of civilian property to finance the war effort; it became part of the Reichsverwaltungsgericht [Reich Administrative Court] in 1941.

 Source: Wikipedia


Reich Ministry of Economic Affairs


alt. for

 See also: Arier


travel permit


re-emigrant; category of prisoner in concentration camp who had returned to Germany after emigrating abroad


sick bay in concentration camp


alt.for Reichsmark

 See also: Reichsmark


(lit. rolls); punishment in concentration camp; in Sachsenhausen the prisoner had to roll over and over on the ground down a hill.

 See also: zur roten Fahnen


raiding party

Rosenberg, Alfred

(1893-1946); leading Nazi propagandist, editor of the daily paper Völkischer Beobachter [National Observer]; in charge of Nazi looting of works of art; Reichsminister für die besetzten Ostgebiete [Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories] from 1941; tried for war crimes in Nuremberg and executed in 1946

roten Fahne, zur

alt. for zur roten Fahne

 See also: zur roten Fahnen


alt.for Remigrant

 See also: Remigrant


Stadtschnellbahn [city rapid railway]; urban transportation network

S. I. G.

alt. for Schweizer Israelitischer Gemeindebund

 See also: Schweizer Israelitischer Gemeindebund


Storm Detachment or Assault Division; storm troopers or brown shirts; original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party

 See also: Sturmabteilung


sometimes Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg, i.e. Sachsenhausen bei Oranienburg, later a suburb of Oranienburg; German concentration camp founded in 1936, 40 kilometres north of Berlin near the town of Oranienburg; prisoners were brought to Sachsenhausen via both Oranienburg and Sachsenhausen railway stations; there was a separate concentration camp at Oranienburg; see also Oranienburg


(lit. salt alley); a torture method used in concentration camps, making a person go along a double row of fellow inmates who have to beat him with clubs.

 Source: Felix Mitterer, 'Drei Geschichten über Kinder, und wie es weiter ging', ESRA-Lesung, 16.11.04, Context XXI, 3-4/2005, 4: "Danach muss er durch die „Salzgasse" gehen. Dabei stehen links und rechts aufgereiht die anderen Kinder, mit Stöcken in den Händen, und schlagen auf den durchmarschierenden Delinquenten ein." "The name might just be a case of random euphemisms; many Jewish quarters had a Salzgasse, as in the middle ages, trading (salt) was one of the professions that they were allowed, and the roads with Salz in their name in Vienna are close to the Judengasse." Source: Wiener Library


assembly camp


assembly point


group transport

 See also: Sonderzug


medical orderly


medical orderlies


medical consultant


Jewish pig/swine

 See also: Judensau, antisemitic insults


alt. for SS-Scharführer

 See also: SS-Scharführer


Shiva; also: Schiwo; from Hebrew: seven; Jewish customary period of seven days' mourning


alt. for Pritsche

 See also: Pritsche


abbr. for Schutzpolizei

Schuschnigg, Kurt

Chancellor of Austria from 29 July 1934 to 11 March 1938


so-called protective custody; the arrest without judicial review of real and potential opponents of the Nazi regime; such prisoners were not confined within the normal prison system but in concentration camps under the exclusive authority of the SS.

 Source: USHMM

 See also: Vorbeugungshaft


so-called protective custody order


Jews in so-called protective custody


lit. protection police; abbr. Schupo; uniformed police

 See also: SS


alt. for SS


so-called protection force

Schwarze Korps, Das

The Black Corps; official SS weekly newspaper (1935-1945)


duty of confidentiality


alt. for antisemitic insults

 See also: antisemitic insults

Schweizer Israelitischer Gemeindebund

abbr. S. I. G.; Swiss Jewish Community Federation


creation of residence


Yiddish: sabbath


abbr. Sipo; security police.

 See also: Gestapo, Kriminalpolizei


so-called preventive detention


alt.for Sicherheitspolizei

 See also: Sicherheitspolizei


special operation Jews; sometimes Aktionsjuden [Jews arrested in the Juni-Aktion and/or the Novemberpogrom]


special train.

 See also: Sammeltransport



 See also: Jüdisches Sozialamt

Spartacist uprising

general strike in Germany in January 1919, in which left wing groups mounted an armed protest against the government led by Friedrich Ebert and were violently suppressed


blocked Marks; the removal of Reichsmarks from Germany was prohibited; the government placed the liquid assets of German Jews who had emigrated in special SperrkontenSperrmarks, of little value outside Germany; the rate of exchange for converting Reichsmarks to Sperrmarks was cut from about 37% in 1935 to about 10% in 1938, by which time the transfer of any funds of Jewish and most foreign emigrants was prohibited.

 Source: Brian Amkraut, Between home and Homeland: Youth Aliyah from Nazi Germany, University of Alabama Press, 2006, pp 89, 191 n133; Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 28 September 1936 and 9 June 1938

 See also: Reichsmark, Papiermark, Haavaramark, Fluchtsteuer, Golddiskontbank


Schutzstaffel; Defence or Protection Squad; established 1923 as Hitler's personal guard, later transformed by Heinrich Himmler into major paramilitary organisation of the Nazi Party


SS concentration camp block leader


SS leader


SS senior leader, equivalent rank to brigadier general


SS senior group leader; senior SS rank


SS sergeant


SS rank equivalent to a lieutenant colonel in the German army; also used by SA


SS local area leader; local representative of the Gauleiter


alt. for Reichsführer-SS

 See also: Reichsführer-SS


alt. for Reichsführung-SS

 See also: Reichsführung-SS


SS company leader; staff sergeant


SS standard leader; SS colonel


SS troop


SS rank equivalent to major in the German army; also used by SA


SS rank equivalent to lieutenant in the German army; also used by SA


SS rank equivalent to captain in the German army; also used by SA


SS combat support troop; auxiliary troops formed in 1934, renamed Waffen-SS [Armed SS] in 1940


public prosecutor's office


abbr. Stapo; state police


(army) medical officer


city hawker's licence



Stahlhelm, Der

steel helmet; Bund der Frontsoldaten: League of Front Line Soldiers; German paramilitary nationalist organisation (1918-1935)


alt. for SS-Standartenfüher

 See also: SS-Standartenfüher


alt. for Staatspolizei

 See also: Staatspolizei


standing roll call

stehen am Tor

standing to attention by the gate; punishment in Sachsenhausen concentration camp


reporting to inspection patrols in concentration camp


tax confirmation certificate


alt. for Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigung

 See also: Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigung


tax administration.

 See also: Finanzamt


punishment duty

Strafe des Baumhängens

alt. for Baumhängen

 See also: Baumhängen


alt. for Exerzieren

 See also: Exerzieren


punishment company


alt. for Judenvermögensabgabe

 See also: Judenvermögensabgabe


criminal procedure code

Streicher, Julius

founder and publisher of antisemitic tabloid weekly newspaper Der Stürmer [The Striker]; Nazi Gauleiter of Franconia.

 See also: Stürmer, Der


room elder in concentration camp

Stunde, Die

The Hour; daily newspaper published in Vienna from 2 February 1923 to the Anschluß [annexation of Austria] in March 1938


alt. for SS-Sturm

 See also: SS-Sturm


alt. for SA

 See also: SA


alt. for SS-Sturmbannführer

 See also: SS-Sturmbannführer

Stürmer, Der

The Fighter; weekly antisemitic tabloid newspaper (1923-1945) founded and published by Julius Streicher; it was an influential element in Nazi propaganda


alt. for SS-Sturmführer

 See also: SS-Sturmführer


alt. for SS-Sturmhauptführer

 See also: SS-Sturmhauptführer


Germany demanded the return of the Sudetenland, a border area of Czechoslovakia containing a majority ethnic German population; in late Summer 1938 Hitler threatened Europe with war unless the Sudetenland with its German population was ceded to Germany; leaders of Britain, France, Italy and Germany held a conference in Munich on 29-30 September 1938 and signed the Munich Pact allowing Germany to annex the Sudetenland in exchange for Hitler's pledge of peace; nevertheless on 15 March 1939 Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia and turned them into a German Protectorate; see also Munich Pact.

 Source: Yad Vashem


reparations; an extra tax paid by Jews to the German state after the Novemberpogrom

 See also: Judenkontribution, Judenvermögensabgabe


synagogue sexton


legal adviser


Jewish prayer shawl


temple; synagogue of Reform Judaism


Temple Society; community of Reform Judaism


Torah scrolls; the most sacred Jewish ritual object; the Five Books of Moses inscribed by hand on the specially prepared skin of a kosher animal; in the Ashkenazi tradition the scribe writes with a quill on parchment; the Sefardi scribe uses a reed to write on parchment or leather.

 Source: Jewish Virtual Library


table elder; most senior person at meal table in concentration camp

Tor stehen, am

alt. for stehen am Tor

 See also: stehen am Tor


Death's-Head units of the SS, founded in 1936 to administer the concentration camps, led by Theodor Eicke, first Kommandant of Dachau who directed the design, operation and training for all concentration camps until 1940; Totenkopfverbände troops were trained to be extremely harsh towards prisoners


transit residence

Überwachungsbeamter der Zollstellen

customs officer supervisor


turnover tax levied on businesses


(lit. certificate of non-objection); tax clearance certificate; needed by Jews seeking to emigrate


alt. for Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigung

 See also: Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigung


submission process in connection with the financial arrangements imposed on Jews who wanted to retain precious metal or jewellery items


person with power of disposal


alt. for SS-Verfügungstruppe

 See also: SS-Verfügungstruppe


retribution measure


arrests operation


alt. for Verhaftungsaktion

 See also: Verhaftungswelle


traffic trap; " was for some time the practice in this police district that Jewish looking persons, who had allegedly disregarded the traffic regulations when crossing the Kurfürstendamm, were taken to the police station..."

 Source: AJR Information, VI/2, February 1951, p 7


alt. for Judenvermögensabgabe

 See also: Judenvermögensabgabe


alt. for Judenvermögensanmeldung

 See also: Judenvermögensanmeldung


wound badge; military decoration initially awarded to German Army soldiers wounded in World War I, reinstituted by Hitler in May 1939 for German volunteers wounded in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), and awarded during World War II; the badge was similar to that of World War I with a swastika added to the steel helmet.

 Source: Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage, An Illustrated Dictionary of the Third Reich, McFarland, 2013, p 193


Wien; capital city of Austria

 See also: Anschluß, Auernheimer, Raoul, Dolfuss, Engelbert, Elisabethpromenade, Aktion-Gildemeester, Grüne Heinrich, Der, Karajangasse, Kenyongasse, Leopoldstadt, Neue Freie Presse, Neues Wiener Tagblatt, Notarrest, Schuschnigg, Kurt, Wahrheit, Die, Stunde, Die, Wiener Tag


four year plan; economic reforms (1936-1940) to make Germany self-sufficient


deputy mayor


Vice Commandant

 See also: Vizelagerkommandant


Camp Vice Commandant

 See also: Vizekommandant

Völkischer Beobachter

National Observer; daily newspaper (1923-1945) published by the Nazi Party and owned by Hitler; edited by Alfred Rosenberg, a leading Nazi and antisemite


alt. for Volkswut

 See also: Volkswut


traitor against the people


people's rage; in the Novemberpogrom context the term was used sceptically by Jews who regarded that outbreak of violence and persecution against them and their communities as being officially directed and coordinated rather than having arisen spontaneously and locally in the mass population; the term kochende Volksseele [seething populace] is also cited sceptically in some of the testimonies


alt. for Volkswut

 See also: Volkswut

vom Rath, Ernst

(1909-1938); a third secretary at the German legation in Paris, shot on 7 November 1938 by Herschel Grynszpan, a Polish Jew living in Paris, in protest against the recent banishment of Polish Jews living in Germany (including his parents) to beyond the Polish border; vom Rath died on 9 November and the Nazis took this as a pretext for the Novemberpogrom; he was buried in Düsseldorf on 15 November; in the week of the funeral special restrictions and punishments were imposed for Jewish prisoners in concentration camps.

 Source: Mémorial de la Shoah


foreman in charge of a work group of concentration camp prisoners


prayer leader


preventive custody of those with previous convictions

 See also: Schutzhaft






chairman(men) and/or council member(s)


preliminary visa

Wach- und Schließgesellschaft

security company




guard team; see also Mannschaft


Armed SS; see also SS-Verfügungstruppe

Wahrheit, Die

The Truth; weekly Austrian Jewish newspaper published in Vienna 1885 until the Anschluß [annexation of Austria] in March 1938; Oskar Hirschfeld (see Glossary) was its last editor


town in Thuringia; Buchenwald concentration camp was 10 kilometres north west of Weimar

Wiener Library

see Jewish Central Information Office

Wiener Tag

Vienna Day; daily newspaper published in Vienna until the Anschluß [annexation of Austria] in March 1938

Winterhilfswerk des deutschen Volkes

abbr. WHW and Winterhilfe; Winter Relief for the German People; Nazi-controlled relief agency for non-Jewish German people in need of material support


squats or Kniebeugen


erudite rabbi who could work miracles


roll call count of prisoners in concentration camps; see also Appell

Zeitschrift für die Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland

Journal of the History of the Jews in Germany, published in Berlin from 1887 until it was banned in November 1938.



hundredweight; c. 50 kilograms


destruction operation


alt. for Zerstörungstrupp

 See also: Zerstörungstrupp


destruction squad




alt. for Zerstörungsaktion

 See also: Zerstörungsaktion

Zionistische Rundschau

Zionist Review; weekly journal of the Zionistischer Landesverband für Deutschösterreich published between 20 May 1938 and 4 November 1938

Zionistische Vereinigung für Deutschland

Zionist Union for Germany; founded in 1894 by Max Bodenheimer; it promoted emigration to Palestine rather than further assimilation in Germany; it was banned after November 1938.

 Source: Arbeitskreis e.V.


customs investigation department


customs investigation office


prison normally administered by the regular legal apparatus rather than the SS; some were used as temporary detention centres for people arrested in the Novemberpogrom; usual Zuchthaus sentences were harsher and much longer than Gefängnis sentences; by June 1935 almost 28,000 (about 25% of all prisoners in Germany) were serving Zuchthaussentences.

 Source: Nikolaus Wachsmann: Hitler's Prisons: Legal Terror in Nazi Germany, Yale UP, 2004

zur roten Fahnen

to the red flags; punishment in Sachsenhausen concentration camp: In Sachsenhausen "Rollen" [rolling] was practised; during their work, prisoners were not allowed to cross a line marked by small flags; prospective victims were made to walk to the top of a hill and were commanded to "lie down and roll"; those made to roll had to brake their bodies before the flag boundary; vigorous individuals succeeded as long as they had not become dizzy; to induce dizziness, the procedure of walking up and rolling down the hill was repeated many times, until the rolling body rolled over the flag boundary; then they were shot.

 Source: Wiener Library

 See also: B.330 (document resource)


forced labour; the imposition of work duties on prisoners; over 20 million foreign civilian workers, concentration camp prisoners and prisoners of war from all the occupied countries had to perform forced labour in Germany between 1940 and 1945; Germany's agriculture and armaments industries relied on them and most other sectors also used them.

 Source: USHMM; Freie Universität Berlin; Stiftung Topographie des Terrors


compulsory first names; from 1 January 1939 Jewish women and men were compelled by Nazi decree to take the additional first name of Sara and Israel respectively.

 See also: Israelitisch


cotton drill uniform; drill, a strong woven cotton fabric, has long been used for military and other uniforms.

 See also: Drillichanzüge